Presenting… The science of disguise

From 30 April to 27 July 2014

The Science of Disguise exhibition was selected and written by Dr William Abberley, Leverhulme Research Fellow in Literature, Science and Medicine, University of Oxford.

In the mid-19th century, nature seemed a stage of tricks and deceptions. Earlier naturalists had noted that some animals appeared to disguise themselves as a means of survival, but they viewed this as just a minor detail of God’s creation. Yet Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection challenged this view, describing a world of constant change, competition and extinction.

In 1864, the Victorian naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace went public with his theory that organisms evolved to mimic each other. Building on the ideas of his colleague Henry Walter Bates, Wallace argued that insects deterred predators by resembling other, inedible species. Organic disguises could be understood as evolutionary adaptations.

A distasteful trick

A distasteful trick

This display from the 1924 London British Empire Exhibition shows how the females of one African butterfly (Papilio dardanus) mimic distasteful species to trick predators. This exemplifies Bates and Wallace’s mimicry by natural selection. The females slowly evolved to resemble the other species, while their less mimetic relatives died out.

Exploring the jungles of South America, Bates and Wallace often noticed one species resembling another in order to trick prey or predators. Animals also used camouflage, by mimicking the bark or leaves they rested on.

Natural camouflage

Natural camouflage

Top left are stick insects resembling a twig and leaves in different seasons; right, mantids that blend into their habitats and also with eye spots and red warning colouration; bottom left, Indonesian leaf butterfly (Kallima paralekta) with wings open and closed.

Scientists have since discovered new forms of natural mimicry in organisms’ sounds and smells, as well as their visual appearances. Behaviour can be deceptive too, including displays of apparent strength and playing dead. Some animals even have one body part that resembles another part to protect their weak spots, such as snakes whose tails mimic their heads.

Other features from our Presenting... series
William Burchell
Bruno Debattista’s horseshoe crab trace fossil
Museum memories
A space traveller’s arrival
Alfred Russel Wallace
William Smith
Our new Collections Manager - Hilary Ketchum
The Breath of Life
Pine cones, great and small
Charles Darwin's insects
The Oxford Dodo
Fossils of the Gault Clay
A wartime gift
The other Audubon
The wonderful diversity of bees
A plesiosaur named Eve
The Worldwide Web
Dr Buckland and the Bear
Pioneers of Photography
'Flight' of the Dodo
Charles Lyell
Delightful Dung Beetles
John Obadiah Westwood
John Eddowes Bowman
All that glitters...
Daughters, wives, sisters... and scientists
Vesuvius Unlocked

Visiting Us

What's on Exhibitions Operation Earth Visiting as a family International visitors Visitors with support needs Museum shop Youth Forum Swifts in the tower Virtual tour
Visiting us: home
Contact us Accessibility Copyright Site map

University of Oxford homepage